Indian economy on the eve of Independence - Indian economy -

Indian economy on the eve of Independence – Indian economy

 Indian economy on the eve of Independence Indian economy on the eve of Independence



At first you know that our Indian economy before independence was exploited by Britishers and after independence our economy struggle for development in different sector And change the economic policy behalf of the needs so now we learn about how to change our economy since back year.

● Colonial rule– it refers to a system between two countries being the ruler and another being the colony and the ruling country determines the economic policy of the colony.

* Britishers ruling on our country around 200 years 1757-1947

stagnant economy– it refers to the economy which is stuck or very slow at its path of development.

● In India pre colonial period (before colonial period)

1. Agriculture was main source of employment and living (around 85%)

2. Crops were grown for self consumption and villagers (artist)

3. Famous on handicraft industry

Indian economy on the eve of Independence
Indian economy on the eve of Independence

4. Self Reliance

Agriculture sector (at the eve of Independence) Indian economy on the eve of Independence

1. Land tenure system (zamindari system)

2. Commercialization of agriculture

 3. Low level of productivity

• lack of irrigation facility

• lack of Technology

• negligible of fertilizers

4. High degree of uncertainty

5. Subsistence farming

Industrial sector at the (eve of Independence)

1. Decline of handicraft industry

• supplier of raw material

• India as a market of Britishers

2. Discriminatory tariff policy of the state

• unrestricted entry of British goods

• tariff free export of raw materials to Britain

• heavy duty on export of Indian handicraft products

3. Competition from machine made products

4. Lack of capital goods industry

5. Change in pattern of demand

6. Negative effect of Railways

Foreign trade under British rule

1. India as a exporter of raw material and importer of finished goods

2. Monopoly control on trade

3. SurPlus trade used for benefits of Britishers

4. Totally control by Britishers

Demographic condition under British rule

1. High birth date and high death rate

(48 & 40 per thousands)

2. High infant mortality rate (death rate of children’s)

● infant mortality rate refers to the the number of deaths of infants before reaching the age of 1 in a particular year.

3. Life expectancy rate (32 years)

4. Literacy rate (nearly 16%)

Female literacy rate 7%

Occupational structure on the eve of Independence

Occupational structure is the distribution of working persons as per their occupation across different industries and sectors of the economy

1. Agriculture was main source of occupation

2. Industry was an insignificant of occupation

3. Unbalanced growth

Infrastructure on the eve of Independence

1. Railways

2. Roads

3. Post and Telegraph

4. ports (बन्दरगाह)

Our economy and our natural resources exploited by Britishers. Britishers anything to do for benefit for own use but some work of britishers is benefits for our indian economy.below you learn some positive impact by britishers..

Positive impact of British rule Indian economy on the eve of Independence

1. Commercialisation of agriculture

2. Introduction of Railways

3. Monetary system of exchange

4. Effective administration

5. New opportunities of employees

Features of Indian economy on the eve of Independence

1. Stagnant economy

2. Backward economy

3. Agricultural backwardness

4. Industrial backwardness

5. Poor infrastructure

6. Colonial economy

7. Rampant poverty


After read this chapter we get some information about our past economy and 1st chapter of Indian economy for commerce class 12th after that we learn explanation in different sector of our economy exploited by britishers and knowing different rules and policies.In our page we learn all classes subjects and  different knowledge.our youtube channel also available so you get for information go to we work on application for all classes  and easy way to get notes and pdf of exam idea so you ready to learn from our easy adda.

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