Drainage clsss 9 notes
• Drainage means the river system of ares.
• The area drained by a single river system is known as drainage basin.
Drainage system in india
The drainage system of india are mainly controlled by the broad relief of the subcontinent.
Indian rivers are divided into two major groups:
• The Himalayan rivers and
• The peninsular rivers.
Drainage pattern depending on the climate conditions underlying , Rock , structure as well as the slope of the area.
• And radial
are drainage pattern
The Himalayan River
The main Himalayan rivers are the Ganga the Indus and the Brahmaputra. These rivers are long and hard joined by many large and important tributaries.
River along with its tributaries is called a River system.
* the world’s largest drainage basin is of the Nile river in Egypt.
• the Sundarban Delta has drive its name from the Sundari tree which grows well in in Marshland.
• it is the world largest and fastest growing Delta it is also the home of Royal Bengal Tiger.
• Brahmaputra is called the Tsang po in Tibet and jamuna in Bangladesh.
Role of rivers in the economy
Rivers have been of great importance throughout the human history water from the river is a natural resources that is essential for the different human activities there for the river banks have been attracting settler strong ancient time.
National river conservation plant ( NRCP )
The activities of Ganga action plan initiated 1985.
National river conservation authority receive the progress of the GAP.
Most lakes are permanent while others contain water only during the rainy season.
Some lakes are the result of the glacial action and ice sheets and some may have been formed by wind, river action and human activities.
A river meandering across a floodplain forms cut-offs that later develop into oxbow lakes.
Glacial lakes are formed when glaciers dig out a basin which is later filled with snowmelt.
Some lakes like Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir result from tectonic activity.
Apart from natural lakes, the damming of the rivers for the generation of hydel power has also led to the formation of lakes.
Lakes help to regulate river water flow, prevent flooding, aid to develop hydel power, moderate climate, maintain aquatic ecosystem, enhance natural beauty, develop tourism and provide recreation.
Role of Rivers in the Economy
Rivers are a natural source of water. It forms the main backbone for agriculture.
Settlements on the river banks have developed into cities.
Rivers are used for irrigation, navigation, hydropower generation, all vital for India, and agricultural economy.
The increasing domestic Municipal agricultural and industrial demand for water from river has affected the quality of water.
The Ganga water is able to dilute and assimilated pollution lot within 20 km of large City.
Quality of river water is affected by the growing domestic, municipal, iftdustrial and agricultural demand.
A heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the river affecting the river’s self-cleansing property.
Concern over rising pollution in our rivers led to the launching of various action plans to clean the rivers like Narmada Bachao Movement.
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