Features problems and policies of agriculture(1950-1990)

Features Problems and Policies Of Agriculture 1950-1990


Method of the Green Revolution Agricultural Policies



● Importance Of Agriculture

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72% of working population in agriculture predominance


1. Contribution to GDP

2. Supply of food grains

3. Source of employment

4. Supply of raw material

5. Source of demand for the industrial goods

6. Wealth of nation


Strategy of industrial growth 1947-1990 - Indian economy


● Features of Indian agriculture

1. Low productivity

2. Dependence on rainfall

3. Subsistence farming

4. Lack of modern inputs

5. Small holding

6. Backward Technology


● Problems of Indian agriculture

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1. Lack of irrigation facility

2. Small scatter holding

3. Deficiency of finance

4. Conventional Outlook

5. Lack of organised Marketing System

AGRICULTURE

Features problems and policies of agriculture 2022


Main Features of Indian Agriculture


1. Low productivity

2. Disguised unemployment.

3. Dependence on rainfall

4. Subsistence farming-objective of farmer is to secure subsistence for his family not to earn profit.

5. Traditional inputs

6. Small holdings

7. Backward technology.

8. Landlord tenant conflict.

Problems of Indian Agriculture


A. General Problems

1. Pressure of population on land

2. Land degradation

3. Subsistence farming

4. Social environment

5. Crop losses-by pest, insect, flood draught etc.

B. Institutional Problems.

1. Small and scattered holdings.

2. Poor implementation of land reforms.

3. Lack of credit and marketing facilities.


C. Technical Problems.

1. Lack of irrigation facilities.

2. Wrong cropping pattern.

3. Outdated technique of production.

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●AGRARIAN REFORMS OR REFORMS IN AGRICULTURAL



1. Land Reforms/institutional reforms

    a. Abolition of intermediaters

    b. Ceiling on land holding

 It refers to fixing the maximum amount of land that one can hold

     c. Consolidation of holding

     d. Cooperative farming


2. Technical reforms (Green Revolution)

     a. Use of high yielding variety seeds (HYVs)

     b. Use of chemical fertilizers

     c. Use of pesticides and insecticides

     d. Scientific crop rotation

     e. Modernized means of cultivation

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3. General reforms


     a. Expansion of irrigation facilities

     b. Institutional credit (NABARD)

     c. Regulated market and Cooperating marketing

     d. Price support policy (MSP)



● in 1982 National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was established to institutional credit facility to the farmers.


Reforms in Indian Agriculture


A. Institutional Reforms also called Land reforms.


(i) Abolition of intermediaries.

(ii) Regulation of rent.

(iii) Consolidation of holdings.

(iv) Ceiling on land holdings.

(v) Cooperative Farming

B. General reforms.

(i) Expansion of irrigation facilities.

(ii) Provision of credit

(iii) Regulated markets and co-operative marketing societies.

(iv) Support price policy.

C. Technical Reforms or Green Revolution

(i) Use of HYV seeds

(ii) Use of chemical fertilisers.

(iii) Use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection

(iv) Scientific rotation of crops

(v) Modernised means of cultivation.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF GREEN REVOLUTION


1. Rise in production and productivity.

2. Increase in income.

3. Rise in commercial farming.

4. Impact on social revolution-use of new technology HYV seeds, fertilisers etc.

5. Increase in employment.

6. Substantial Rise in Acerage


FAILURES OF GREEN REVOLUTION


1. Restricted to limited crops and areas such as two crops wheat & rice growing states like Punjab, Haryana, U.P. and Andhra Pradesh.

2. Partial removal of poverty.

3. Neglected land reforms.

4. Increase in income disparity between small and big farmers

5. Ecological degradation.


                 GREEN REVOLUTION


It refers to sudden and spectacular increase in agriculture productivity due to the use of high yielding variety seeds in 1965.


● Achievements of Green Revolution

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1. Increase in production

2. Increase in national income

3. Shift from subsistence farming to Commercial farming

4. Change in farmers Outlook

5. Self sufficiency in food grain


● limitations of Green Revolution / failure



1. Limited crops (wheat and rice)

2. Limited areas (Punjab Haryana Maharashtra Tamil Nadu etc)

3. Soil degradation

4. Economic divide (poor and rich)


CRITICISM AGAINST INDUSTRIAL LICENSING

1. There was an adhoc system for accepting or rejecting an application for licence.


2. The quality of techno economic examination conducted by Director General of technical development was generally poor.


3. Licensing policy resulted in under utilisation of capacity in many industries.


4. In reality, the policy helped large business houses in accumulating economic power.

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ANSARA
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28 December 2020 at 08:52 ×

Wow

Congrats bro ANSARA you got PERTAMAX...! hehehehe...
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