Infrastructure - Indian economy


Infrastructure - infrastructure refers to support system of economic and social development of a country

• It provides supporting service to main areas of industry, agricultural ,trade and Commerce

   eg- Roads , Electricity , Health , Energy , etc

● Types of infrastructure

   1. Economic infrastructure

It refers to such elements of support system like power, transport and Communications

   2. Social infrastructure

It refers to such elements of support system like school, college, hospital, and nursing homes

● Importance of infrastructure

1. increase productivity

2. Provide employment opportunities

3. Infrastructure facilitates outsourcing

4. Infrastructure inhance size of the market

Energy -components of economic infrastructure

It is the lifeline of production activity across all sectors of the economy

               Source of energy

● Commercial and Non Commercial source of energy

A. Commercial source of energy

     a. It is formed in term of price

     b. These goods are used in factories

         eg- coals, petroleum, natural gas and electricity

     c. They have a market of sale and purchase

     d.  it is non renewable in nature

B. Non commercial source of energy

    a. It is found as a gift from nature

    b. They are renewable source of energy

    c. These are used for domestic consumption purpose

         eg - cowdunk, firewood, animal waste

● conventional and non conventional source of energy

A. Conventional source of energy

     a. Which we are using from long period of time

     b. It is limited in nature

     c. They are non renewable

     d. It generally polluted the environment

     e. They are more expensive in nature

      eg - Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas, Electricity

B. Non conventional source of energy

    a. Recently discovered

    b. Unlimited in nature

    c. They are renewable in nature

    d. They generally do not pollute the environment

    e. They are less expensive in nature

     eg - Solar energy, Wind energy, Biogas,Biomass

● Emerging challenges in power generation

1. Inadequate generation of electricity

2. Transmission and distribution losses

3. Less capacity utilisation

4.  losses of electricity boards

● Measures to remove problems of power generation

1. Minimise the Transmission and distribution losses

2. Increase in production capacity

3. Improve supply of inputs to power plants

4. Improve plant load factor

   (electricity generated by production capacity)

5. Privatisation

Health - Components of social infrastructure

1. It means a sound physical and mental state of the individual it does not simply mean absence  of disease

2. Increase in overall efficiency to handle difficult task

3. Increase in mental abilities

● Development of Health Service after independence

1. Decline in death rate

2. Reduction in infant mortality rate

3. Rise in expectancy of life

● Healthcare sector system in India

   3tier health-care system

1. Primary Health centres

   a. Provides basic facilities

   b. Single doctor

   c. Village and small towns

   d. Small Hospital

2. Secondary health centres

   a. Provides surgery, ECG, X-rays  etc

   b. Better facility from primary center

   c. Specially in town

3. Tertiary Healthcare center

   a. Advanced level equipment

   b. AIIMS ( big branch )

   c. Provide all types of facilities

● Health as an emerging challenges

1. Unequal distribution of Healthcare services

2. Communicable disease

3. Poor management

4. Poor sanitation level

5. Privatisation

6. Poor unkeep and a maintenance


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