French Revolution And Nationalism In Europe


•CITOYEN : French men are called citoyen.
•CLERGY : Group of person ingested with special functions in the church.
•TITHE :A Tax levied by the church equal one-tenth of the agricultural produce.
•CHATEAU: Castle belonging to a king or nobleman .
•LIVRE: Unit of currency used in France till 1794.
•MANOR :An estate consisting of the Lord's land and his mansion.
•TAILLE : Tax paid directly to the state.
•CITOYENNE: French woman are called citoyenne.
•NEGROES:A term is usually used for the indigenous people of Africa, south of the Sahara .A derogatory term not now commonly used.
•OLD REGIME: This term is usually used to describe the society and institution of France before 1789.
•MAXIMILIAN ROBESPIERRE: Leader of the jocobin club whose policies led to the Region of 1794 he was convicted and sent to the guillotine..
•NAPOLEON BANOPARTS:The military dictator of France who conquerd many European countries.he was defeated at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.
•VOLTAIRE:A famous and influential French writer, he stressed on religious tolerance and freedom of speech.he is credited with the famous statement on free speech 'I do not agree with a word you say ,but I will defend to the death your right to say it.he savagely attacked all things he considered superstition and was a vehement critic of the catholic Church.
•LOUIS XVI: The king of France when the revolution accurred was a man of average intelligence who disliked any kind of brain work. He staunchly believed in the Divine Right of king and was completely unaware of the new ideas that were sweeping across his country and oblivious to the needs and fears of his subject.He was obsessed with his beautiful wife and wasted money on festivities.he drove France into useless wars bringing the country to the verge of bankruptcy.
•FIRST ESTATE: French society was divided into classes called Estate.the first estate consisted of the clergy which held vast land wealth and was exempt from taxation.
•SECOND ESTATE:It consisted of the aristocracy and controlled all the top position in the government, parliament and in the army and navy .they were also exempt from taxation and led an extravagant life .
•THIRD ESTATE:This comprised everyone who was neither mobility nor clergy and constituted 98% of the population.twon dwellers the wealthy upper middle class(merchants, bankers, doctors,lawyers ) lower middle class craftsmen shopkeeper and peasants comprised the third estate.this class lacked political power, social position and was heavily taxed though there were many differences in their wealth and style of living.
•In the 19th century the French society was divided into three estate.The clergy and mobility which formed the first two estate were the privileged classes.they were exempted from payment of State taxes.the third estate formed the majority of the population and was the unprivileged class. it bore the burden of taxes with no political rights and social status.
•The population of France increased drastically during the period 1715-1789.this led to a rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains.But the production of grains did not increase.
• On August 14,1789  the Assembly passed a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligation and taxes.member of clergy too were forced to give up their privileges.
• The National Assembly completed the draft of the construction in 1791.Its main object was to limit the power of the monarch.
• The construction of 1791 vested  the power to make laws in the national assembly,which was indirectly elected .
• The construction began with a declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen.Rights such as the right to life , freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as natural and inalienable rights.
• On 10th August 1792 the Jacobin stormed the place of the Tuileries,massacred the king guards and held the king himself as hostage for several hours .later the Assembly vote to imprison the royal family or richfamily .election were held .
• The newly elected assembly was called the convention.on September 21,1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.
                      IMPORTANT DATES                          
•1774 >Louis XVI becomes king of France.
•1789 >Third estate form National Assembly.the Bastille is stormed.
•1791 >A constitution is framed to limit the powers of the king.
•1792-1793 >France becomes a republic.the king is executed.
•1804 >Napoleon becomes emperor of France.
•1804 >Napoleon code  of France.
•1848 > Slavery was abolished in all French colonies.
•1949 > French woman got the right to vote.
•France declared a republic on 21september 1792.
•1945 woman in France won the right to vote.
•the battle of Waterloo fought in 1815 AD
•french revolution take in 1789.
•The spirit of law's was written by MONTESQUIEU.
•NATIONALISM :A sense of belonging to one nation.feeling of pride and patriotism towards the our country.
•REPUBLIC :A state where the head of the state is elected and does not hold a hereditary position.
•LIBERALISM : Derived from the Latin word liber' meaning free .The idea of liberalism stand for freedom of individual and equality of all before law.politically ,it refers to representative government.
•MONARCHY: From of government headed by a monarch or a hereditary or dynastic ruler.
•HABSBURG EMPIRE:The empire that ruled Austria-Hungary including the Alpine region of Tyrol,Austria, Sudetenland as well as Bohemia.It also included Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
•CIVIL CODE: A systematic set of laws for the citizens.
•The civil code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleon code was introduced.
•ABSOLUTIST:A government or system of rule without restraint on the power exercised.
•CARBONARI:A secret society of italy-consisting of young revolutionaries.
•YOUNG ITALY:A secret society founded by Mazzini at Marseilles for organising revolutionary activities.
•Giuseppe Mazzini formed young Italy to establish a unitary Italian republic.
•DAS VOLK:A German word meaning common people.
•PLEBISCITE:A direct vote which gave power to the people of a region to accept or reject a proposal.
•UTOPIAN:An imaginary ideal society which principally dose not exist.
•ETHNIC : The people of different identities living together sharing common racial ,tribal,or cultural origin or background.
•IDEOLOGY: System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
•ALLEGORY: Symbol representing an abstract idea an idea identified through a person or a thing .
•On 18 may 1848,in the Frankfurt Parli,a construction was drafted and freedom of the press and freedom of association were established.
•The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.the first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe which gave rise to unemployment.population from rular areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
•Germany was divided into many states. in 1848,the German confederation and Prussia began organising themselves into a German state
Three wars-Danish war ,Austro-Prussian war and Frsnco-Prussian war -were fought which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification of Germany in1871.tje Prussian king Kaiser Wilhelm I was proclaimed German emperor.
In 1861,the process of the unification of ITALY completed and victor Emmanuel-II was proclaimed king of the united Italy .
•ENGLAND is a industrialization first begin in Europe.
•CONSERVATISM: A  political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition established institution and custom,and preferred gradual development to quick chand ..
                 IMPORTANT DATES
•1714 >George-I became the king of great Britain.
•1715 >Louis XV became the king of France.
•1740-1748 > The war of the Australian succession.
•1756-1763 > The seven years war.
•1776 >The American declaration of independence.
•1789 > The French revolution occurred.
•1797 > Napoleon invalided Italy.
•1821 > Greece struggle for independence began.
•1832 > Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire.
•1852 >Camillo Cavour became the premier of sardini-piedmont.
•1859 >Piedmont and France defeated Austria.
•1861>Victor Emmanuel-II of Piedmont-sardinia became king of Italy.
•1866-1871>The unification of Germany.
•1861-1888> Reign of king William-I of Prussia.
•1867> Prussia created the North German confederation.
•1870-1871>Frsnco-Prussian war.
•1871>The German Empire was formed.
•1848>The revolution of 1848.
•1905>The nationalism gathered force in the Habsburg and Ottoman Empire.
•In 1848,Frederic sorrieu a French artist prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made of democratic and social republic.
•During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe.
•Europe changes was the emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.
•The political and constitutional change that came in the wake of the French revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
•The civil code of 1804--usually known as the Napoleon code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
•Giuseppe Mazzini and the founding of young Europe in Berne 1833.
•The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830.
•The English poet lord Byron organised fund and later went to fight in the war where he died of fever in 1824.
•Louise Otto Peters (1819-1895) was a political activist who founded a women's journal and subsequently a feminist political association.the issue of her newspaper (21 April 1849) carried the following editorial.
•ABSOLUTIST: Literally a government or system of rule that has no restraint on the power exercise. in history the term refer to form of monarchical government that was centralised militarized and repressive.
•UTOPAIN:A vision of society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
•PLEBISCITE:A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
•SUFFRAGE: The right to vote.
•CONSERVATISM:A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institution and custom and preferred gradual development to quick change.
•FEMINIST: Awareness of women right and interest based on the belief of the social economic and political equality of the gender.
•IDEOLOGY: System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
•ETHNIC: Relates to a common racial tribal or cultural origin or background that a community identifie with or claim .
•ALLEGORY: When an abstract idea (for instance,greed,envy, freedom,liberty) is expressed through a person or a allegorical story has two meanings one literal and one symbolic.       


We provide short summary and some exam notes of all subjects and for all classes.this notes is related to class 12th commerce/arts indian economy notes.In our page we learn all classes subjects and  different knowledge.our youtube channel also available so you get for information go to we work on application for all classes  and easy way to get notes and pdf of exam idea so you ready to learn from our easy adda.

Next Post »